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  • What data does the GFS use?


    As promised - a more comprehensive look at what data goes into the GFS. All of these types of data from around the entire globe are input into the model on each run. There are obviously different availabilities of some types of data (like for instance flight data will be more available during daylight hours as flights occur more often at that time).

    But bear in mind that as the data is worldwide - there will be more data available from different parts of the globe at different times. The net result is probably that each model run has a similar amount of raw data fed into it.

    As you can see there is a fair bit of raw data used...

    Surface data - Land

    Synoptic - restricted (WMO Resolution 40) manual and automatic

    Synoptic - fixed manual and automatic

    Synoptic - mobile manual and automatic

    Aviation - METAR

    Vertical soundings - other than Satellite

    Rawinsonde - fixed land

    Rawinsonde - mobile land

    Rawinsonde - ship



    NEXRAD Vertical Azimuth Display (VAD) winds

    Single Level Upper-air data (other than satellite)

    Flight level reconnaissance aircraft data

    Automated MDCRS ACARS aircraft data (from ARINC)

    Automated MDCRS ACARS aircraft data (from ARINC) via AFWA

    Manual AIREP format aircraft data

    Manual PIREP format aircraft data

    Automated AMDAR format ASDAR/ACARS aircraft data

    European ASDAR/ACARS Data Aquisition System (E-ADAS) aircraft data (originally in BUFR)

    NOAA Profiler Network (NPN) winds

    Profiler winds originating from PILOT (Pibal) bulletins

    Japanese Meteorological Agency (JMA) profiler winds

    Cooperative Agency Profiler (CAP) winds

    RASS temperatures from NOAA Profiler Network (NPN) and Cooperative Agency Profilers (CAP)

    Vertical soundings - satellite

    GOES/NESDIS-processed 5x5 field-of-view soundings/brightness temperatures

    GOES/NESDIS-processed 1x1 field-of-view soundings/brightness temperatures

    Surface data - satellite

    QuikSCAT products

    DMSP/SSM-I - operational products derived at FNMOC

    DMSP/SSM-I - Neural Net-3 products derived at NCEP

    DMSP/SSM-I - processed brightness temperatures

    NASA/Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)/TMI)

    Single level upper air data - satellite GOES/NESDIS infrared derived cloud motion (from NESDIS server, originally in BUFR)

    GOES/NESDIS water vapor imager derived cloud motion (from NESDIS server, originally in BUFR)

    GOES/NESDIS visible derived cloud motion (from NESDIS server, originally in BUFR)

    INSAT/India infrared derived cloud motion

    INSAT/India visible derived cloud motion

    INSAT/India water vapor derived cloud motion

    GMS/JMA infrared derived cloud motion - low density (originally in SATOB format)

    GMS/JMA visible derived cloud motion - low density (originally in SATOB format)

    GMS/JMA water vapor imager derived cloud motion - low density (originally in SATOB format)

    METEOSAT/EUMETSAT infrared derived cloud motion (originally in BUFR)

    AQUA/TERRA MODIS infrared derived cloud motion

    AQUA/TERRA MODIS water vapor imager derived cloud motion

    Surface data - sea

    Sea level pressure bogus

    Ship - manual and automatic

    Buoys in FM-18 format (moored or drifting)

    Buoys in FM-13 format (moored)

    Land-based CMAN station

    Tide gauge reports in CREX format

    Radiances - satellite measured

    AQUA/AIRS, AMSU-A, HSB processed brightness temperatures

    GOES NESDIS-processed 11x17 field-of-view imager (clear sky) brightness temperatures

    NOAA-14/HIRS-2 (High resolution InfraRed Sounder-2) NCEP-processed brightness temperatures

    NOAA-14/MSU (Microwave Sounding Unit) NCEP-processed brightness temperatures

    NOAA-15,-16,-17,-18/AMSU-A (Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A) NCEP-processed brightness temperatures

    NOAA-15,-16,-17/AMSU-B (Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-B NCEP-processed brightness temperatures

    NOAA-15,-16,-17/HIRS-3 (High resolution InfraRed Sounder-3) NCEP-processed brightness temperatures

    Physical/chemical constituents

    POES/NESDIS Solar backscatter ultraviolet radiances

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