Here are the current Papers & Articles under the research topic ENSO (El Nino Southern Oscillation) which include papers on the two variants El Nino and La Nina. Click on the title of a paper you are interested in to go straight to the full paper. Papers and articles covering the basics (ideal for learning) are shown in Green.
El Niño, La Niña and the Southern Oscillation (Met Office overview)
Increasing Frequency of Extreme El Nino Events due to Greenhouse Warming
2014 paper. Abstract:
El Niño events are a prominent feature of climate variability with global climatic impacts. The 1997/98 episode, often referred to as `the climate event of the twentieth century', and the 1982/83 extreme El Niño, featured a pronounced eastward extension of the west Pacific warm pool and development of atmospheric convection, and hence a huge rainfall increase, in the usually cold and dry equatorial eastern Pacific. Such a massive reorganization of atmospheric convection, which we define as an extreme El Niño, severely disrupted global weather patterns, affecting ecosystems, agriculture, tropical cyclones, drought, bushfires, floods and other extreme weather events worldwide. Potential future changes in such extreme El Niño occurrences could have profound socio-economic consequences. Here we present climate modelling evidence for a doubling in the occurrences in the future in response to greenhouse warming. We estimate the change by aggregating results from climate models in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phases 3 (CMIP3; ref. ) and 5 (CMIP5; ref. ) multi-model databases, and a perturbed physics ensemble. The increased frequency arises from a projected surface warming over the eastern equatorial Pacific that occurs faster than in the surrounding ocean waters, facilitating more occurrences of atmospheric convection in the eastern equatorial region.
The Relationship between Northern Hemisphere Winter Blocking and Tropical Modes of Variability
2016 paper. Abstract:
In the present study, the influence of some major tropical modes of variability on Northern Hemisphere regional blocking frequency variability during boreal winter is investigated. Reanalysis data and an ensemble experiment with the ECMWF model using relaxation toward the ERA-Interim data inside the tropics areused. The tropical modes under investigation are El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO), and the upper-tropospheric equatorial zonal-mean zonal wind [U1^50]E. An early (late) MJO phase refers to the part of the MJO cycle when enhanced (suppressed) precipitation occurs over the western Indian Ocean and suppressed (enhanced) precipitation occurs over the Maritime Continent and the western tropical Pacific. Over the North Pacific sector, it is found that enhanced (suppressed) high-latitude blocking occurs in association with El Niño (La Niña) events, late (early) MJO phases, and westerly (easterly)[U1^50]E. Over central to southern Europe and the east Atlantic, it is found that late MJO phases, as well as a suppressed MJO, are leading to enhanced blocking frequency. Furthermore, early (late) MJO phases arefollowed by blocking anomalies over the western North Atlantic region, similar to those associated with a positive (negative) North Atlantic Oscillation. Over northern Europe, the easterly (westerly) phase of[U1^50]Eis associated with enhanced (suppressed) blocking. These results are largely confirmed by both the reanalysis and the model experiment.