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The severe winter of 1894-95


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Posted
  • Location: Irlam
  • Location: Irlam

    The winter of 1894-95 was severe with a CET of 1.2C. Here's a summary of this winter.

    DECEMBER 1894

    December 1894 was mild for the most part and the first three weeks were dominated by SWlies.

    http://www.wetterzentrale.de/archive/slp/1...slp18941210.gif

    It was not until the last week, when the winds veered to the NW that colder weather arrived with frosts and snow showers to exposed areas.

    18cm of snow was reported in Norfolk at the end of the month.

    http://www.wetterzentrale.de/archive/slp/1...slp18941230.gif

    JANUARY 1895

    January started with cold northerlies and temperatures near freezing.

    http://www.wetterzentrale.de/archive/slp/1...slp18950103.gif

    Troughs in the flow gave snow showers to most parts and many places had a snow cover, Oxford had 8cm by the 6th.

    High pressure to the west moved across the UK and under the clear skies and with a deep snow cover, very low minima were recorded with -11C in parts of Norfolk

    http://www.wetterzentrale.de/archive/slp/1...slp18950109.gif

    and -18C in parts of the Highlands. Freezing fog formed and was slow to clear, a maxima of -5C was recorded at Ross-on-Wye in freezing fog.

    Milder air tried to push in from the Atlantic with a system and a heavy snowfall resulted across the UK with depths of snow of between 8 to 15cm being widely reported.

    http://www.wetterzentrale.de/archive/slp/1...slp18950112.gif

    The Atlantic air finally broke through and there was a thaw resulting in flooding in a number of areas.

    Temperatures were in double figures in the south, Kew recording 11C.

    The NNWlies returned on the 21st with a low over the near continent and

    it's active cold front moving across SE England bringing thunderstorms, snow and hail.

    http://www.wetterzentrale.de/archive/slp/1...slp18950122.gif

    The northerly flow for a few days and conditions were severe over northern Scotland with heavy drifting snow and snow fell elsewhere exposed to the north wind.

    FEBRUARY 1895

    At the end of January, high pressure was intensifying over Scandinavia and reached a pressure of 1049mb

    http://www.wetterzentrale.de/archive/slp/1...slp18950131.gif

    A very cold easterly flowed across the UK and most of Europe and there were severe frosts with minima of -13C at Loughborough and -15C being recorded at Chester.

    Heavy snow showers came with the easterly with Yorkshire and Lincolnshire getting the brunt of the showers, South Shields was severely affected by 15 hours of continous snowfall

    forcing the closure of the shipyard. Small polar lows affected the west with snowfalls, Douglas on the Isle of Man recorded 20cm of snow.

    As the high over Scandinavia moved over the UK then came a phenomenally cold spell with exceptionally low minima. Temperatures of -20C or less were regularly recorded, -27.2C was recorded at Braemer on the 11th, the lowest ever UK minima, -24C at Buxton also on the 11th, -22.2C at Rutland. -12.7C was the mean average temperature for Wakefield in Yorkshire between the 5th and the 14th. Canals, rivers, lakes and ponds froze in the severe cold, the Manchester Ship canal was iced over, there were ice floes in the Thames and the Thames estuary itself was impassable because of ice.

    http://www.wetterzentrale.de/archive/slp/1...slp18950214.gif

    Many people died of hypothermia, there was mass unemployment as industries were closed by the conditions and coal supplies dwindled as transporting coal by canal or rail became impossible.

    As the high began to slip westwards, milder Atlantic air slowly encroached and temperatures crept above freezing for the first time in a couple of weeks, London had its first frost free night on the 21st for three weeks. Maxima temperature were finally returning to close to normal by the end of the month.

    http://www.wetterzentrale.de/archive/slp/1...slp18950228.gif

    Data for Winter 1894-95

    December 1894: 5.1 (+1.3)

    January 1895: 0.2 (-3.3)

    February 1895:-1.8 (-6.2)

    Coldest spells of the winter

    6th-13th January: -1.5

    http://www.wetterzentrale.de/archive/slp/1...slp18950106.gif

    26th January-1st February: -3.0

    http://www.wetterzentrale.de/archive/slp/1...slp18950128.gif

    5th-18th February: -4.8

    http://www.wetterzentrale.de/archive/slp/1...slp18950209.gif

    The first half of February: -4.3

    The period 1st January-14th February: 0

    January 1895 is the 26th coldest ever recorded

    February 1895 is the second coldest February ever recorded

    Coldest daily CET maximum: -4.5C 6th February

    http://www.wetterzentrale.de/archive/slp/1...slp18950206.gif

    Coldest daily CET minimum: -13.5C 8th February

    http://www.wetterzentrale.de/archive/slp/1...slp18950208.gif

    Mildest daily CET maximum: 11.2C on the 13th December

    http://www.wetterzentrale.de/archive/slp/1...slp18941213.gif

    Photos from February 1895

    http://www.segfl.org.uk/victorianlearningj...n_over_1895.jpg

    http://www.portcities.org.uk/london/upload/img_400/H4967.jpg

    http://www.portcities.org.uk/london/upload/img_400/H4970.jpg

    http://www.portcities.org.uk/london/upload/img_400/H6656.jpg

    • Like 1
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    Posted
  • Location: Dublin, ireland
  • Weather Preferences: Snow , thunderstorms and wind
  • Location: Dublin, ireland

    Thanks Mr Data,

    That was a great read.

    Very similar to the winter of 2006-2007 :whistling:

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    Posted
  • Location: SE London
  • Location: SE London

    Once again, an excellent post there Mr Data. The photos for London are amazing.

    I think if we were to ever have a winter like that again here in London, we would come to a complete standstill

    Once again, Well Done

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    Posted
  • Location: Irlam
  • Location: Irlam

    To gauge just how cold that spell was in Feb' 1895, here are the record minima set for these dates in February that were set in 1895

    7th: -21.7

    8th: -25.0

    9th: -23.9

    10th: -25.6

    11th: -27.2

    12th: -20.6

    13th: -21.9

    14th: -21.7

    16th: -23.9

    17th: -23.9

    18th: -23.9

    19th: -22.2

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    Posted
  • Location: Guess!
  • Location: Guess!
    To gauge just how cold that spell was in Feb' 1895, here are the record minima set for these dates in February that were set in 1895

    7th: -21.7

    8th: -25.0

    9th: -23.9

    10th: -25.6

    11th: -27.2

    12th: -20.6

    13th: -21.9

    14th: -21.7

    16th: -23.9

    17th: -23.9

    18th: -23.9

    19th: -22.2

    Good grief. Could you imagine the utter chaos if that kind of winter was ever to be repeated with 60m people now in the UK and 32million cars - mind you I suppose we could use the Thames as an extra few lanes to the Embankment!

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    Posted
  • Location: Irlam
  • Location: Irlam
    Good grief. Could you imagine the utter chaos if that kind of winter was ever to be repeated with 60m people now in the UK and 32million cars - mind you I suppose we could use the Thames as an extra few lanes to the Embankment!

    It was chaos back then but at least they had some experience of dealing with the situation after recent severe winters but it would be a lot different now since we are more independent than back then as we have private transport etc

    Edited by Mr_Data
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    Posted
  • Location: Western Isle of Wight
  • Weather Preferences: Snow, Storm, anything loud and dramatic.
  • Location: Western Isle of Wight
    It was chaos back then but at least they had some experience of dealing with the situation after recent severe winters but it would be a lot different now since we are more independent than back then as we have private transport etc

    The River Trent froze completely in 1890/1(inland) and that's no small river, it looks like quite an experience :D I suppose it froze through again in1894/5.

    http://images.google.co.uk/imgres?imgurl=h...yUK%7CcountryGB

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    • 10 months later...
    Posted
  • Location: Ski Amade / Pongau Region. Somtimes Skipton UK
  • Weather Preferences: Northeasterly Blizzard and sub zero temperatures.
  • Location: Ski Amade / Pongau Region. Somtimes Skipton UK

    A great read. Mr Data. You must have spent a lot of time on that one. I will save that one.

    C

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    Posted
  • Location: Irlam
  • Location: Irlam

    Thanks for your comments :lol:

    More Times reports on this great freeze coming up.

    Looking at those minimum temperatures and converting them into Celsius.

    Cambridge, Loughborough: -13C

    Oxford: -11.7C (-17.2C on grass)

    York: -8.9C

    London: -8.3C

    Liverpool: -7.8C

    Yarmough: -6.7C

    Jersey: -6.1C

    Scilly: -2.8C

    Some maxima

    London: -1.1C (Brixton)

    Aberdeen: -2.2C

    Yarmouth: -3.9C

    York: -5C

    Around Europe

    Paris

    Max: -7.2C

    Min: -12.8C

    Berlin

    Max: -8.3C

    Min: -10.6C

    Vienna

    Max: -10.7C

    Min: -17C

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    Posted
  • Location: Hampton and Fairfield, Evesham , Worcestershire.
  • Weather Preferences: Love Weather, Hate the Spin and Lies to do with our Planets Climate.
  • Location: Hampton and Fairfield, Evesham , Worcestershire.

    Very good read thanks. Wasnt minus27.2c recorded in Scotland as recently as December 1995? :nonono: Well perhaps this winter will buck the trend and end up like that one!! :shok::shok:

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    Posted
  • Location: Ponteland
  • Location: Ponteland

    Great info Mr data-thanks very much,It makes me wonder if given the same synoptics during a even larger teapot just how much higher the temperatures would be-if only we were given the opportunity to find out!

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    Posted
  • Location: South Derbyshire nr. Burton on Trent, Midlands, UK: alt 262 feet
  • Weather Preferences: Extreme winter cold,heavy bowing snow,freezing fog.Summer 2012
  • Location: South Derbyshire nr. Burton on Trent, Midlands, UK: alt 262 feet

    Thanks Mr Data, a brilliant read there from the Times, some paragraphs read as though the reports are from the Arctic.

    Quote, ‘The Thames below London Bridge was again very full of drifting ice yesterday.’ Quote ‘The Report from the Welsh Harp stated that the ice there last night was 9 and half inches thick.’ :)

    Amazing stuff.

    Tip to some older folk like me. If you are like me and have problems reading the small print from the Times, a good way is to save the picture to your desktop and open in another application such as Adobe Photoshop and use the zoom function, this does help to make easier reading.

    Paul

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    Posted
  • Location: Irlam
  • Location: Irlam

    Note in the report of two people successfully crossing the Sound (between Zealand and Sweden) on ice. Can be seen on the map link.

    http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/europe/denmark_pol99.jpg

    One point of interest is that there have been only 8 sub zero CET Februarys but half of them have occurred since the second world war (1947, 1956, 1963 and 1986). It is remarkable to think that from 1659-1946, there were 4 sub zero Februarys in 287 years and there have been 4 in the last 60 years.

    Edited by Mr_Data
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    Posted
  • Location: Edmonton Alberta(via Chelmsford, Exeter & Calgary)
  • Weather Preferences: Sunshine and 15-25c
  • Location: Edmonton Alberta(via Chelmsford, Exeter & Calgary)
    Note in the report of two people successfully crossing the Sound (between Zealand and Sweden) on ice. Can be seen on the map link.

    http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/europe/denmark_pol99.jpg

    One point of interest is that there have been only 8 sub zero CET Februarys but half of them have occurred since the second world war (1947, 1956, 1963 and 1986). It is remarkable to think that from 1659-1946, there were 4 sub zero Februarys in 287 years and there have been 4 in the last 60 years.

    yeah i have noticed that januaries were much colder than february in those times!

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    Posted
  • Location: Irlam
  • Location: Irlam

    Some amazing stuff in that last article

    A block of ice nearly 20ft high on the Thames bank at low tide, men digging ice out of canal creating an ice wall of up to 10 feet high, several feet wide and two miles long! :doh:

    I wonder how long that took to melt!

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    Posted
  • Location: Irlam
  • Location: Irlam

    In one of those reports, it mentions Lough Neagh was frozen over. Lough Neagh covers 151 square miles.

    Those readings from Rutland in C, first value: air minimum; second value: grass minimum

    5th: -13.3C; -13.8C

    6th: -19.4C; -20.6C

    7th: -20C; -21.1C

    8th: -22.2C; -25C

    9th: -15C; -18.3C

    The economic and human impact the great freeze was having

    feb1895n.jpg

    feb1895o.jpg

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